origins of the Egyptian capital with it's 15 million inhabitants
can be found near the present day Coptic
district. In 641 AD, Amr Ibn Al-As, general of the Caliph
Omar built a new capital for Egypt near his tent (Arabic:
Fustat). That is why the first capital of Egypt was called
Fustat. But when the Abbassids overthrew the Omaiads in
750 AD the city was burnt down except the mosque of Amr
Ibn Al-As, so that a new capitol was built somewhat to
the north and was called Al-Askar.
dynasty ended when the Ottomans under Sultan Selim I,
conquered Cairo in 1517 AD and subjugated it under Turkish
rule. In 1805, after Napoleon's "Egyptian Campaign",
the citadel (built by Saladin 1176 AD) was occupied by
Mohammed Ali and the town received a fresh revive. He
modernised and founded new city districts.
During the reign of Ahmed Ibn Tulun (863-883), his residence
was transferred to the Jashkur hills where he built his
famous mosque and a new capital names "Al Katai".
The origin of today's name (Cairo) can be traced back
to the Fatimid General Gohar invading Egypt in 969 AD.
He named the city after constellation of Mars (Al-Kahir),
Under the reign of many sultans and especially in the
Mameluke period, Cairo prospered and became a centre of
Islamic art and architecture.
Today's Cairo is the foremost capital on the African continent
and the political, cultural and economic centre of Egypt
with many monuments and relics of the Pharonic, Graeco-Roman,
Christian and Islamic period, attracting many visitors
from all over the world.